kurdistan iracheno cartina

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It was not until September 10, when an Iraqi army column was ambushed by a group of Kurds, that the Kurdish revolt truly began. The campaign also included Arabization of Kirkuk, a program to drive Kurds and other ethnic groups out of the oil-rich city and replace them with Arab settlers from central and southern Iraq.[56]. Date: 11/28/2016. At this battle, it was said that the Kurds slaughtered an entire brigade. [60] This led to internecine and intra-Kurdish conflict and warfare between 1994 and 1996. Average summer temperatures range from 35 °C (95 °F) in the cooler northernmost areas to blistering 40 °C (104 °F) in the southwest, with lows around 21 °C (70 °F) to 24 °C (75 °F). N. Maxoudian, "Early Armenia as an Empire: The Career of Tigranes III, 95–55 BC", Village on the Euphrates: From Foraging to Farming at Abu Hureyra, by A.M.T Moore, G.C. This was not received well in Baghdad, and as a result, Qasim began to prepare for a military offensive against the north to return government control of the region. 1925. aastal väisas Põhja-Iraaki Rahvasteliidu mõjukas uurimiskomisjon, mida juhatas kindral Johan Laidoner. Winning team of football tournament, May 2017, Domiz 2 camp, Duhok, Kurdistan Region - Iraq. Moreover, the Soviet Union pressured the Iraqis to come to terms with Barzani. In 1929, the Barzani demanded the formation of a Kurdish province in northern Iraq. Il Kurdistan iracheno, ufficialmente Regione del Kurdistan, (in curdo: Herêma Kurdistanê), è un'entità federale autonoma nella parte settentrionale dell'Iraq che comprende i quattro governatorati a maggioranza curda di Dahuk (Dihok), Erbil (Hewlêr), Halabja (Helebce) e Sulaymaniyya (Silêmanî). Find the perfect Kurdistan Iracheno stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images. In 1930, following the announcement of the admission of Iraq to the League of Nations, Shaikh Mahmoud started a third uprising which was suppressed with British air and ground forces.[40][41]. Among other cities in the climate table below, Soran, Shaqlawa and Halabja also experience lows which average below 0 °C (32 °F) in winter. Arab settlement programs reached their peak during the late 1970s, in line with depopulation efforts of the Ba'athist regime. Regional autonomy had originally been established in 1970 with the creation of the Kurdish Autonomous Region following the agreement of an Autonomy Accord between the government of Iraq and leaders of the Iraqi Kurdish community. Praegu jääb Türgi, Iraagi, Iraani ja Süüria aladele. 77 likes. The region also has its own flag and national anthem. [44][45] Recognizing the futility of continuing this campaign, Rahamn Arif announced a 12-point peace program in June 1966, which was not implemented due to the overthrow of Rahman Arif in a 1968 coup by the Baath Party. However, as of late 2015, no new Regions have been formed, and the KRG remains the only regional government within Iraq. The Baathist policies motivating those events are sometimes referred to as "internal colonialism",[53] described by Dr. Francis Kofi Abiew as a "Colonial 'Arabization'" program, including large-scale Kurdish deportations and forced Arab settlement in the region.[54]. PUK leader Jalal Talabani was elected President of the new Iraqi administration, while KDP leader Masoud Barzani became President of the Kurdistan Regional Government. Before the region was conquered by Arab Muslims in the 7th century AD, numerous Kurdish tribes and small Kurdish empires flourished.Islamic rule over the Kurdish homeland by the Ottoman Empire came to end after WWI, but the Iraqi Kurds, who had lived between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, were segmented into different countries a… Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}36°55′N 44°2′E / 36.917°N 44.033°E / 36.917; 44.033. Prior to the rule of king Ushpia circa 2030 BC, the city of Ashur appears to have been a regional administrative center of the Akkadian Empire, implicated by Nuzi tablets,[26] subject to their fellow Akkadian Sargon and his successors.[27]. [14], Bird species include, the see-see partridge, Menetries's warbler, western jackdaw, Red-billed chough, hooded crow, European nightjar, rufous-tailed scrub robin, masked shrike and the pale rockfinch. There are also several smaller lakes, such as Darbandikhan Lake and Duhok Lake. The history of the the Kurdish people in Iraqi Kurdistan dates back to ancient times. It took two years for the British to bring Kurdish areas into submission, while Shaikh Mahmud found refuge in an unknown location. "Iraq's Marshes Show Progress toward Recovery", "Climate: Arbil – Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table", "Erbil Weather Forecast and Climate Information", "Introduction : GENOCIDE IN IRAQ: The Anfal Campaign Against the Kurds (Human Rights Watch Report, 1993)", "Page 9 – The Internally Displaced People of Iraq", "Death Clouds: Saddam Hussein's Chemical War Against the Kurds", "Human Rights Watch Report About Anfal Campaign, 1993", "Iraqi Kurdistan: contours of a post-civil war society", "Kurds Reluctant to Send Troops to Baghdad", "Iraqi Kurdish leader says region will defend itself", "Two dead, 10 wounded after Iraqi, Kurdish forces clash in northern Iraq –, "Kurdish Leader: We Will Vote For Independence Soon", "The tide is finally turning for the Kurds – Especially in Turkey", "Tensions mount between Baghdad and Kurdish region as Kurds seize oil fields", "Kurdish leaders are postponing plans for a referendum on independence and say they instead will devote their efforts to forging a new Iraqi government", "House Republican Wants To Work Around Baghdad, Arm the Kurds", "BBC News – Iraq conflict: Why Irbil matters", "Barzani: Time is ripe for referendum; Kurdish independence brings the region peace", "Barzani: Kurdistan will hold referendum before October", "Kurdistan will hold independence referendum in 2017, senior official", "Massive 'yes' vote in Iraqi Kurd independence referendum", "Iraqi forces seize oil city Kirkuk from Kurds in bold advance", "Iraq's Kurdistan says to respect court decision banning secession", Kurdistan’s Politicized Society Confronts a Sultanistic System (Carnegie Paper), Two-state solution (Iraqi–Kurdish negotiations), Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Iraq Region, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Iraqi_Kurdistan&oldid=992975456, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles containing Kurdish-language text, Articles needing additional references from April 2020, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 03:21. The region was to be ruled by the two principal Kurdish parties; the Kurdish Democratic Party (KDP) and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK). In 1922, Britain restored Shaikh Mahmud to power, hoping that he would organize the Kurds to act as a buffer against the Turks, who had territorial claims over Mosul and Kirkuk. Analisi qualitativa e comparata della democrazia in Rojava e nel Kurdistan iracheno. Mountains in Iraqi Kurdistan include the Zagros, Sinjar Mountains, Hamrin Mountains, Mount Nisir and Qandil mountains. With the escalation of the Iraqi crisis and fears of Iraq's collapse, Kurds have increasingly debated the issue of independence. Kurdish parties joined forces against the Iraqi government during the war in Spring 2003. However, relations have been improved since then, and Turkey now has the largest share of foreign investment in Kurdistan. [62] Direct United States mediation led the two parties to a formal ceasefire in what was termed the Washington Agreement in September 1998. Annual rainfall differs across Iraqi Kurdistan, with some places seeing rainfall as low as 500 millimetres (20 in) in Erbil to as high as 900 millimetres (35 in) in places like Amadiya. [46] Despite this, the Iraqi government embarked on an Arabization program in the oil rich regions of Kirkuk and Khanaqin in the same period.[47]. Most of the rain falls in winter and spring, and is usually heavy. Hillman and A.J Legge, Published 2000, Oxford University Press, A Dictionary of Scripture Geography, p 57, by John Miles, 486 pages, Published 1846, Original from Harvard University. Media in category "Maps of Iraqi Kurdistan" The following 55 files are in this category, out of 55 total. Thank you for joining The Kurdish Project community! Il Kurdistan iracheno. During World War I, the British and French divided Western Asia in the Sykes-Picot Agreement. There is a seasonal lag in some places in summer, with temperatures peaking around August and September. [30][31], The region fell to Alexander The Great in 332 BC and was thereafter ruled by the Greek Seleucid Empire until the middle of the second century BC (and was renamed Syria, a Greek corruption of Assyria), when it fell to Mithridates I of Parthia. [66], In September 2012, the Iraqi government ordered the KRG to transfer its powers over the Peshmerga to the central government. Marc. It is the first day of the month of Xakelêwe in Kurdish calendar and the first day of spring. Click each marker to explore the region, view pictures, and learn more. L'origine della questione curda e l'applicabilità del diritto all'autodeterminazione. [5][6] Much of the geographical and cultural region of Iraqi Kurdistan is part of the Kurdistan Region (KRI), an autonomous region recognized by the Constitution of Iraq. In April 2012, the president of Iraq's semi-autonomous northern Kurdish region demanded that officials agree to their demands or face the prospect of secession from Baghdad by September 2012. The Kurds, an ethnic group numbering around 30 million people, is widely recognized to be the largest stateless national group in the world. One of the major Assyrian cities in the area, Erbil (Arba-Ilu), was noted for its distinctive cult of Ishtar,[28] and the city was called "the Lady of Ishtar" by its Assyrian inhabitants. Marc. This melting pot of ethnicities, languages, religions and political factions is due to the large area that the Kurds inhabit. A peace plan was announced in March 1970 and provided for broader Kurdish autonomy. The Assyrian semi-independent kingdom of Adiabene was centred in Erbil in the first Christian centuries. The severe economic hardships caused by the embargoes fueled tensions between the two dominant political parties, the KDP and the PUK, over control of trade routes and resources. Between the 16th and 17th century the area nowadays known as Iraqi Kurdistan, (formerly ruled by three principalities of Baban, Badinan, and Soran) was continuously passed back and forth between archrivals the Safavids and the Ottomans, until the Ottomans managed to decisively seize power in the region starting from the mid 17th century through the Ottoman–Safavid War (1623–39) and the resulting Treaty of Zuhab. [50] The repressive measures carried out by the government against the Kurds after the Algiers agreement led to renewed clashes between the Iraqi Army and Kurdish guerrillas in 1977. Exporters/Importers trading with the Kurdistan region need to comply with the requirements of Kurdistan’s Consignment Based Conformity Assessment (CBCA) service which mandates that shipments require a Certificate of Conformity in order to clear … The region was inhabited by the northern branch of the Gutian/Hurrians around 2400 BC. Iraqi Kurdistan largely escaped the privations of the last years of Saddam's rule and the chaos that followed his ouster in 2003, and built a parliamentary … Instead, it is rolling hills and plains vegetated by sclerophyll scrubland. See the articles on Turkey, Western Iran and Syria for information regarding the other regions of Kurdistan. Winters, however, are dramatically cooler than the rest of Iraq, with highs averaging between 9 °C (48 °F) and 11 °C (52 °F) and with lows hovering around 3 °C (37 °F) in some areas and freezing in others, dipping to −2 °C (28 °F) and 0 °C (32 °F) on average. The League of Nations granted France mandates over Syria and Lebanon and granted the United Kingdom mandates over Palestine (which then consisted of two autonomous regions: Mandatory Palestine and Transjordan) and what was to become Iraq. The literal translation for Kurdistan is "Region of Kurds.”, "Kurdistan" was also formerly spelled Curdistan. Between 612 and 605 BC, the Assyrian empire fell and it passed to the neo-Babylonians and later became part of the Athura Satrap within the Achaemenian Empire from 539 to 332 BC, where it was known as Athura, the Achaemenid name for Assyria. In response to the attack, Qasim lashed out and ordered the Iraqi Air Force to indiscriminately bomb Kurdish villages, which ultimately served to rally the entire Kurdish population to Barzani's standard. Assyrian kings are attested from the 23rd century BC according to the Assyrian King List, and Assyrian city-states such as Ashur and Ekallatum started appearing in the region from the mid-21st century BC. It is also argued that the Oil-for-Food Programme from 1997 onward had an important effect on cessation of hostilities. The Al-Anfal Campaign constituted a systematic genocide of the Kurdish people in Iraq. Others surrendered en masse and the rebellion ended after a few days. In 1978 and 1979, 600 Kurdish villages were burned down and around 200,000 Kurds were deported to the other parts of the country. [39] In the early 18th century, it briefly passed to the Iranian Afsharids led by Nader Shah. Southern Kurdistan is largely mountainous, with the highest point being a 3,611 m (11,847 ft) point known locally as Cheekha Dar ("black tent"). Eva Savelsberg, Siamend Hajo, Irene Dulz. Things began to change after the 1991 uprising against Saddam Hussein at the end of the Persian Gulf War. Gali Zinta (Zinta Valley) near Akre town, Duhok Governorate, in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq DSC 3715.jpg 6,016 × 4,000; 13.29 MB Gate of Amedi in Kurdistan 01.jpg 6,016 × 4,000; 14.88 MB Gate of Amedi in Kurdistan 03.jpg 6,016 × 4,000; 14.76 MB

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